have

My house (1) has a bath and shower and I (2) have a bath or shower every day. I (3) have to have a bath or shower every day. My previous apartment also (4) had a bath and shower and I (5) had a bath or shower every day. I (6) had to have a bath or shower every day. This was a good thing because my first apartment (7) had had only a shower and I (8) had had a shower every day. I (9) had had to have a shower every day.

Most of that is made up to illustrate a grammar point, namely the various uses of the verb have as an auxiliary verb, a main verb, a catenative verb and an ‘extra verb’.

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students’ countries

I have occasionally said to people that I’ve taught students from more than 30 countries. I think the list below is accurate, but I might have missed one or two. Overwhelmingly most of my students have been/are from Asian countries (esp PR China, Hong Kong, RO China, Thailand) at my current college, South American countries (esp Colombia, Peru, Brazil) at my previous college, and South Korea in South Korea. I’ve had only one or two students from most of the African, Middle-Eastern and European countries.

 

Mongolia PR China Hong Kong RO China South Korea Japan

Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Fiji

Mexico Colombia Peru Brazil Argentina

Tanzania Kenya Egypt UAE Jordan Israel Lebanon Turkey

Spain Italy Hungary Czech Republic Poland Latvia Lithuania Greece

Iran Pakistan India Nepal Bangladesh

Interference errors

The question in the exam was ‘Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence’. One set of words was ‘next / they / What / are / do / to / going / year / ?’. Most students got it right, several wrote ‘What they are going to do next year?’, and eight of them wrote ‘What are they do going to next year?’. My first thought was that they had ‘cooperated’ on the exam, but checking their names showed that they were sitting in different parts of the room, and the rest of their answers showed no signs of ‘cooperation’.

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Pronouncing Korean

My Korean pronunciation apparently still needs work. One class was practicing ‘can’ for ability. After eliciting sentences like ‘I can play (sport/computer game/musical instrument)’, ‘I can cook (food)’, ‘I can ride (bike, motor scooter/motor bike)’ and ‘I can drive (car)’, I asked:

Parlez-vous fraçais?
them: (blank looks)
me: Can you speak French?
them: No.
me: Sprechen Sie Deutsch?
them: (blank looks)
me: Can you speak German?
them: No.
me: 한국어를 하세요?
them: (blank looks)
me: 한- 국 – 어 – 를 하 – 세 – 요?
them: (blank looks)
me: Can you speak Korean?
them: Of course!
me: 한국어를 하세요?
them: (blank looks)
me: 한- 국 – 어 – 를 하 – 세 – 요?
them: (blank looks)
me: (internal sigh)

The French and German translate as ‘Speak you (language)’ and the Korean as ‘Do you speak (language)’, but it’s the standard question to ask in each language. Korean has several other options; maybe French and German do, too. In English, we might ask ‘Can you speak (language)?’ or ‘Do you speak (language)?. Those aren’t necessarily the same question or answer. One might not speak a language which one can speak, for example, being the only speaker of your language in the vicinity or for socio-political reasons.

adjuncts

“In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence. Example: In the sentence John helped Bill in Central Park, the phrase in Central Park is an adjunct.” (Wikipedia)

Perhaps the biggest categories of adjunct are place (where – as in the example above), time (when), manner (how) and reason (why). But there are more. In A student’s introduction to English grammar, Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey Pullum list: manner, place, time, duration (how long), frequency (how often), degree (how much), purpose, result (so ~), condition (if ~) and concession (although ~). I would also add how many times.

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the dog, the cat and eleplant

Yesterday, after my students and I compiled the sentences ‘A big, black jaguar ate spicy pink pasta with [one of the students] in [our university’s restaurant] this morning, because it was hungry’  and ‘[My name] wears a lovely white lace one-piece in a wedding hall every morning because he is cute’ (explained in yesterday’s post), I set the students to writing their own sentences. The results were mixed.

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